Study the Grammar rules and do the exercises. Post your answers in the comments to this post
INFINITIVES AND -ING FORMS
1. INFINITIVE WITHOUT TO -ing form, with a difference of meaning. Some verbs (eg. think)
The infinitive is used without to in several different cases.
1. Modal auxiliary verbs: You should consult a good dictionary. The commonest verbs which
After the modal auxiliary verbs will, shall, would, should, can,
could, may, might, and must, we use the infinitive without to. It is
also used after the expressions would rather and had better, and
after need and dare when they are used as auxiliary verbs.
I must go now.
Can you help me?
I'd rather go alone.
You'd better see what she wants.
Need I do the washing up?
How dare you call me a liar.
After ought, used, be and have, the to-infinitive is used.
2. Let, make, hear, etc
Certain verbs are followed by an object and the infinitive without
to. They are: let, make, see, hear, feel, watch, notice, help (in an
She lets her children stay up very late.
I made them give me the money back.
I didn't see you come in.
I heard her say that she was fed up.
Did you feel the earth move?
Could you help me unload the car?
When these verbs are used in the passive, they are followed by the
He was made to pay back the money.
She was heard to say that she disagreed.
2. INFINITIVE AS SUBJECT OF A SENTENCE
In older English, an infinitive subject could easily be put at the
beginning of a sentence, like any other subject.
To err is human, to forgive divine. (Pope)
In modern English, it is more common to begin the sentence with it
('preparatory subject'), and to put the infinitive later.
It's easy to make mistakes. (Instead of To make
mistakes is easy.)
It was impossible to explain what I meant.
An -ing form is often used instead of an infinitive as the subject of
a sentence, particularly when we are talking about an activity in
general. The -ing form can be put at the beginning of a sentence.
Selling insurance is a pretty boring job.
But if we are talking about one particular action, the infinitive is
It was difficult to sell my car.
3. INFINITIVE AFTER VERB
It is very common for one verb to be followed directly by another.
This happens, for instance, if we talk about our attitude to an
action: the first verb describes the attitude, and the second refers
to the action.
I enjoy playing cards.
I hope to see you soon.
In some of these cases, the second verb is the infinitive; in others,
the -ing form is used. The choice depends on the first verb. For
instance, hope can be followed by an infinitive (or by a
that-clause); enjoy is always followed by an -ing form. Some verbs
(eg try, remember) can be followed either by an infinitive or by an
cannot be followed directly by another verb.
In order to know what structures are possible after a particular verb,
are followed directly by an infinitive are:
afford agree appear arrange
ask attempt bear begin
care choose consent dare
decide determine expect fail
forget happen hate help
hesitate hope learn like
love manage mean neglect
offer prefer prepare pretend
promise propose refuse regret
remember seem start swear
tend trouble try want
Some of these verbs can also be followed by the -ing form, often
with a different meaning.
Some of these verbs, and a number of others, can be used in the
construction verb + object + infinitive (for example, I wanted her
to come back early).
Note that these verbs are all followed by an infinitive with to
(except sometimes dare).
4. VERB + OBJECT + INFINITIVE
Want, allow, and some other verbs are normally used with an object
and an infinitive.
She didn't want me to go. (Not: *...that I go.)
They don't allow people to smoke.
I didn't ask you to pay for the meal.
The following list contains the commonest verbs which are used in
this construction. Many of them can also be used in other
constructions (for instance, with an -ing form or a that-clause); for
detailed information about each verb you should consult a
advise hate prefer
allow help press
ask instruct recommend
bear intend request
beg invite remind
cause leave teach
command like tell
compel mean tempt
encourage need trouble
expect oblige want
forbid order warn
force permit wish
There are some common verbs that cannot be used in the
structure verb + infinitive; for instance, suggest.
I suggested that she (should) go home.
or I suggested her going home.
5. FOR + OBJECT + INFINITIVE
* After certain adjectives, the special structure for + object +
infinitive is often used.
It is important for the accounts to be ready by Friday.
It's unusual for her door to be open - I wonder if
I'm anxious for the party to be a success.
The same meaning could often be expressed with a that-clause (I'm
anxious that the party should be a success), but this is usually2
more formal in style. I saw him letting out of his car. (Not *I saw his getting...)
This for-structure is used after three kind of adjectives: 8. -ING FORM AFTER A VERB.
A) Adjectives that express importance or urgency, for instance. When one verb is followed by another, the second verb is not
important, essential, vital, necessary, pointless, unimportant, always in the infinitive. You can say I want to travel or I hope to
unnecessary. The sentence is often introduced by It is. travel, but not *I enjoy to travel. Enjoy is usually followed by the
It is essential for the classroom to have plenty of light.
It is pointless for the three of us to go: one will be enough.
B) Adjectives that express frequency, for instance, common,
normal, unusual, rare. The It is structure is often used.
It is unusual for foxes to come so close to the town.
Do you think it's normal for a child to get so tired?
C) Adjectives that express personal reactions to the future, for
instance, anxious, eager.
I'm anxious for the painting to be ready on time.
They say they'll be delighted for Mary to go and stay.
* A for-structure is often used after too and enough.
It's too heavy for you to lift. I really appreciate having time to relax.
I think it's late enough for us to put Philip to bed. Have you considered getting a job abroad?
* The for-structure can also be used after certain nouns, for You mentioned having been in hospital last year.
instance, plan, idea, suggestion.
Have you heard about the plan for Jack to stand for the
Liberals in the General Election?
His idea is for us to travel in two different cars.
6. INFINITIVE OF PURPOSE.
The infinitive with to is used to talk about people's purposes, the
reasons why they do things.
My brother got a job to earn money for his holiday.
He started drinking to forget.
He stopped for a minute to rest.
The same idea can be expressed by using in order to or so as to.
I got up early in order to have time to pack.
We went via Worcester so as to miss the traffic jams. is a preposition). The infinitive is impossible in these cases.
He stopped for a minute in order to rest.
In negative sentences, in order not to or so as not to are used; the ...*before to start...)
infinitive alone is not usually correct. He walked away without looking back. (Not: ...*without
I'm going to start now, in order not to miss the beginning. You can't make an omelette without breaking the eggs
After come, go, run, hurry up, stay, stop and some other verbs, and He's always talking about moving to the country.
can be used instead of an infinitive of purpose. I look forward to hearing from you.
Come and have a drink.
Hurry up and get dressed.
Stay and have dinner. 10. TO + -ING
We ought to stop and think.
Would you go and tell the children to shut up?
7. -ING FORM WITH POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE OR 'S
The possessives my, your etc, and genitives like John's. can be
used with -ing forms.
Do you mind my making a suggestion?
I'm annoyed about John's forgetting to pay.
In informal English it is more common to use forms like me, you,
John instead, especially when these forms are functioning as the
grammatical object of the sentence.
Do you mind me making a suggestion?
I'm annoyed about John forgetting to pay.
Note that the verbs see, hear, feel, smell are not usually followed by
possessive + -ing.
-ing form, and so are quite a number of other verbs. The most
admit excuse miss
appreciate face postpone
avoid feel like practise
consider finish put off
contemplate forgive resent
delay give up resist
deny can't help risk
detest imagine can't stand
dislike involve suggest
endure leave off understand
Excuse my interrupting...
Prevent is followed by object + (from) + -ing.
There's nothing to prevent him (from) taking the money.
The -ing form is also used in the following cases:
to burst out crying / laughing
to go swimming / shopping
to spend / waste time / money doing something
to keep (on) doing something
9. -ING FORM AFTER PREPOSITION
The -ing form is used after all prepositions (including to, when to
You should check the oil before starting the car (Not:
We got the job finished by working sixteen hours a day.
Sentences like I look forward to hearing from you may seem
strange, if you expect the verb in every to + verb structure to be the
infinitive. The point is that to is really two different words. One of
them is just a sign of the infinitive. (It is used with most infinitives,
but is left out in some cases, for example after can or must.)
I want to go home. You can go home alone.
The other to is a preposition.
Lawrence has gone to Denmark.
I'm looking forward to Christmas.
Do you object to Sunday work?
I'm not used to London traffic.
When this preposition is followed by a verb, we use the -ing form
(as we do after all prepositions).
I'm looking forward to seeing you at Christmas.
Do you object to working on Sundays?
I'm not used to driving in London.
I prefer riding to walking. 3
Stop + infinitive = make a break or pause in order to do
If you are not sure whether to is a preposition or not, try
putting a noun after it. If you can, it is a preposition (and is
followed by the -ing form of a verb). Compare:
I'm not used to British traffic conditions. D) Go on + -ing = continue what one has been doing.
I'm not used to driving on the left.
I object to music in restaurants.
I object to having loud music playing while I eat.
If to cannot be followed by a noun, it is not a preposition, and -ing
is not used. You cannot say *I want to dinner, so you do not say
*I want to eating.
Common examples of to + -ing are: look forward to ...-ing, object to
...-ing, be used to ...-ing, in addition to ...-ing, be accustomed to
...-ing (but be accustomed to + infinitive is also possible).
11. -ING FORM: SPECIAL CASES
Note the use of the -ing form after as, like, than, any / some / no etc
good , any / some / no etc use and worth.
As well as getting on everybody's nerves, he's got a habit * With the adjective interested, the -ing form refers to what
of borrowing money and forgetting to pay it back.
Why don't you do something useful, like cleaning the flat?
There's nothing that depresses me more than waking up
with a hangover on a wet Monday.
Is it any good trying to explain?
It's not much use my buying salmon if you don't like it.
It isn't worth repairing the car. (= The car isn't worth
12. -ING FORM OR INFINITIVE?
Some verbs can be followed by either an -ing form or an infinitive,
usually with a difference of meaning. The most important cases are:
advise go on propose
allow hate regret
attempt hear remember
can't bear intend see
begin like start
continue love stop
forbid permit try
forget prefer watch
This is also the case with certain adjectives:
accustomed interested used
* With remember, forget, stop, go on and regret, the
difference is connected with time. the -ing form refers to things that
happened earlier (before the remembering, forgetting, etc takes
place); the infinitive refers to things that happen after the
A) Remember + -ing = remember what one has done, or what
I shall always remember meeting you for the first time.
Remember + infinitive = remember what one has to do.
Remember to go to the post office, won't you.
B) Forget + -ing = forget what one has done, or what has
I shall never forget seeing the Queen.
Forget + infinitive = forget what one has to do.
She's always forgetting to give me my letters. 'Can I give you a lift?' - 'No, thanks, I prefer to walk.'
C) Stop + -ing = stop what one is doing, or does. * Allow, advise, forbid and permit are followed by an -ing
I really must stop smoking. form when there is no personal object. If we say who is allowed,
advised, etc, the infinitive is used.
Every half hour I stop work to smoke a cigarette.
How long do you intend to go on playing those bloody
Go on + infinitive = change, move on to something new.
He welcomed the new students and then went on to
explain the college regulations.
C) Regret + -ing = be sorry for what has happened.
I don't regret telling her what I thought, even if it upset
Regret + infinitive = be sorry for what one is going to say.
I regret to inform you that we are unable to offer you
will (or may) happen, and the infinitive refers to what has happened.
Interested in + -ing = interested by the idea of doing
I'm interested in working in Switzerland. Do you know
anybody who could help me?
Interested + infinitive = interested by what one learns or
I was interested to read in the paper that scientists have
found out how the universe began.
* Like + -ing = enjoy
I like walking in the rain.
Like + infinitive = choose to; be in the habit of; think it
I like to get up early so that I can have plenty of work
done before lunch.
I heard you talking and I didn't like to disturb you, so I
Note that would like means 'wish' or 'want', and is always followed
by the infinitive.
What would you like to do tomorrow? (Not: *What would
you like doing tomorrow?)
* With love, hate and prefer there is not much difference
between the two structures.
I love lying / to lie on my back and staring / to stare at the
Some people hate working / to work in the early morning.
Personally, I prefer working / to work in the morning.
When we are referring to one particular occasion, it is more common
to use the infinitive.
Would you like to have lunch now or would you prefer to
I'll love to come and see you some time.
I hate to break things up, but it's time to go home.
I hate to mention it, but you owe me some money. 4
Sorry, we don't allow smoking in the lecture room. * Sorry is used with an infinitive when we apologize for
We don't allow people to smoke in here.
I wouldn't advise taking the car - there's nowhere to park.
I wouldn't advise you to take the car...
* After see, watch and hear, and -ing form suggests that
we observe part of a complete action; when we start looking or use a perfect infinitive or for + -ing, or a that-clause.
listening it is already going on. The infinitive is used when we want
to suggest that we observe the whole action from beginning to end. Sorry to have woken you up yesterday.
I'm sorry for waking you up (or for having woken you up)
When I walked past his house I heard him practising the yesterday.
violin I'm sorry that I woke you up yesterday.
I heard Oistrakh play the Beethoven violin concerto last
When I glanced out of the window I saw Mary crossing the
I watched him step off the pavement, cross the road, and
disappear into the post-office.
* Try + -ing = make an experiment; do something to see
what will happen.
I tried sending her flowers but it didn't have any effect.
Try putting in some more vinegar - that might make it
taste a bit better.
* Try + infinitive = make an effort; attempt to do something
Please, try to understand.
I once tried to learn Japanese.
* Afraid of + -ing and afraid + infinitive can often both be
used with little difference of meaning.
I'm afraid to fly / of flying.
I'm afraid to tell / of telling her.
However, when we are talking about things which happen
to us unexpectedly, without our wanting or choosing them, only the
-ing form is possible.
I'm afraid of crashing. (Not: *...to crash.)
I don't like to speak French because I'm afraid of making
mistakes. (Not: *...to make...)
I'm afraid of diving / to dive into the swimming pool. (= I
don't want to do it.)
I'm afraid of falling into the swimming-pool. (= I don't
want it to happen to me. Here *...to fall is
* Begin and start can be followed by an -ing or infinitive
structures, usually with no real difference of meaning. It is perhaps
more common to use an -ing form when we are talking about the
beginning of a long or habitual activity.
How old were you when you first started playing the
The -ing form is not used after a progressive form of begin
I was beginning to get angry. (Not: *...getting...)
After begin and start, the verbs understand and realize are
only used in the infinitive.
She began to understand what he really wanted. (Not:
* After propose, attempt, intend, continue, can't bear and
be accustomed to, both structures are possible with little difference
of meaning, but the infinitive is probably more common after
propose, attempt and intend.
I can't bear getting / to get my hands dirty.
He intends to double the advertising budget.
something that we are doing or about to do.
Sorry to disturb you? - Could I speak to you for a
When we apologize for something that we have done, we5
EXERCISES you're free (go) whenever you like.
1) Gerund, infinitive and present participle against man but he warned them (not adopt) man's habits.
Put the verbs in brackets into the correct forms. Note that 32.- There is no point in (arrive) half an hour early. We'd only
sometimes an infinitive without to will be required. have (wait).- I don't mind (wait) It's better (be) too early than
1.- 'I was lonely at first,' the old man admitted, 'but after a time too late.
I got used to (live) alone and even got (like) it.' 33.- I always try (come) in quietly but they always hear me
2.- Before trains were invented people used (travel) on (go) upstairs. It's impossible (climb) and old wooden staircase
horseback or in stage coaches. It used (take) a stage coach at night without (make) a noise.
three days (go) from London to Bath. 34.- If you agree (work) for me. I'll see about (get) you a work
3.- I meant (buy) an evening paper but I didn't see anyone permit.
(sell) them. 35.- We'd better (start) early. We don't want (risk) (get) caught
4.- Tom: I want (catch) the 7 a.m. train tomorrow. Ann: But in a traffic jam.
that means (get) up at 6.00; and you're not very good at (get) 36.- He suggested (call) a meeting and (let) the workers
up early, are you? (decide) the matter themselves.
5.- He accepted the cut in salary without complaint because
he was afraid (complain). He was afraid of (lose) his job. 2) Gerund, infinitive and present participle.
6.- She remembers part of her childhood quite clearly. She Instructions as for 1.
remembers (go) to school for the first time and (be) frightened 1.- We suggested (sleep) in hotels but the children were
and (put) her finger in her mouth. And she remembers her anxious (camp) out.
teacher (tell) her (take) it out. 2.- Paul: Would you like (come) to a lecture on Wagner
7.- Did you remember (lock) the car? - No, I didn't. I'd better tonight? Ann: No, thanks. I like (listen) to music but I don't like
(go) back and (do) it now. (listen) to people (talk) about it.
8.- No, I didn't move the bomb. I was afraid (touch) it; I was 3.- If you want the milkman (leave) you milk in the morning,
afraid of (be) blown to pieces! remember (put) a milk bottle outside your door.
9.- Next time we go (house-hunt), remember (ask) the agent 4.- They let us park motorcycles here but they won't allow us
for clear directions. I wasted hours (look) for the last house. (park) cars.
10.- Tom: Let's (go) for a swim. Ann: I'm not particularly keen 5.- They don't allow (smoke) in the auditorium; they don't want
on (swim). What about (go) for a drive instead? (risk) (set) in on fire, but you can (smoke) in the foyer during
11.- The hunters expected (be paid) by the foot for the snakes the interval.
they caught. This meant (take) the snakes out of the sack and 6.- Mr Shaw is very busy (write) his memoirs. He is far too
(measure) them. They seemed (expect) me (do) it; but I wasn't busy (receive) callers (he is so busy that he can't receive
particularly anxious (be) the first (die) of snakebite. callers), so you'd better just (go) away.
12.- After (spend) two days (argue) where to go for their 7.- What about (buy) double quantities of everything today?
holidays, they decided (not go) anywhere. That will save (shop) again later in the week.
13.- He is talking about (give) up his job and (go) (live) in the 8.- The inspector asked (see) my ticket and when I wasn't able
country. (find) it he made me (buy) another.- He probably suspected
14.- I was just about (leave) the office when the phone rang. It you of (try) (travel) without one.
was my wife; she wanted me (call) at the butcher's on my way 9.- Would you like me (turn) down the radio a bit?- Not, it's all
home. right. I'm used to (work) with the radio on.
15.- He said, 'I'm terribly sorry to (keep) you (wait).' I said, 'It 10.- I want the boy (grow) up hating violence but his father
doesn't matter at all,' but he went on (apologize) for nearly five keeps (buy) him guns and swords.- It's almost impossible
minutes! (prevent) boys (play) soldiers.
16.- The lecturer began by (tell) us where the island was, and 11.- Would you children mind (keep) quiet for a moment? I'm
went on (talk) about its history. trying (fill) in a form.-
17.- My father thinks I am not capable of (earn) my own living, 12.- It's no use (ask) children (keep) quiet. They can't help
but I mean (show) him that he is wrong. (make) a noise.
18.- Tom: I can't get my car (start) on cold mornings. Jack: 13.- I'm thinking of (go) to Oxford tomorrow on my motorbike.
Have you tried (fill) the radiator with hot water? That Would you like (come)?- No, thanks, I want (go) Oxford, but
sometimes helps. I'd rather (go) by train. I loathe (travel) by road. 14.- Let's (go)
19.- Did he manage (carry) the trunk upstairs? - No, he didn't. (fish) today. There's a nice wind. What about (come) with us,
He isn't strong enough (move) it, let alone (carry) it upstairs. Ann?- No thanks, I'm very willing (cut) sandwiches for you but
20.- Jack: Don't forget (take) a hacksaw with you. Ann: What's I've no intention of (waste) the afternoon (sit) in a boar (watch)
a hacksaw? And why should I (take) one with me? Jack: It's you two (fish).
a tool for (cut) metal. You see, Tom is bound (get) into trouble 15.- He resented (be) ask (wait). He expected the minister
for (take) photographs of the wrong things, and you'll be (see) him at once.
arrested with him. With a hacksaw you'll be able (saw) through 16.- The police have put a railing here (prevent) people (rush)
the bars of your cell and (escape). out of the station and (dash) straight across the road. 17.- All
21.- Peter: Wouldn't it be better (ask) Tom (leave) his camera day long we saw the trees (toss) in the wind and heard the
at home? Jack: It would be no good (ask) Tom (do) that. It waves (crash) against the rocks. 18.- I didn't mean (eat)
would be like (ask) a woman (travel) without a handbag. anything but the cakes looked so good that I couldn't resist
22.- I've got the loaf; now I'm looking for a breadknife (cut) it (try) one.
with.- I saw Paul (sharpen) a pencil with the breadknife a 19.- Do you feel like (walk) there or shall we (take) a bus?- I'd
minute ago. rather (go) by bus. Besides, it'll take ages (get) there on foot.
23.- We stopped once (buy) petrol and then we stopped again 20.- All right. When would you like (start)? In a few minutes?
(ask) someone the way. - Oh, let's wait till it stops (rain); otherwise well get soaked
24.- When I caught them (cheat) me, I decided (not trust) (walk) to the bus station.
them again. 21.- The old miser spent all his time (count) his money and
25.- Do you feel like (dine) out or would you rather (have) (think) up new hiding-places. He kept (move) it about because
dinner at home? - I'd like (go) out. I always enjoy (have) dinner he was terrified of (be robbed). He used (get) up at night
in a restaurant. sometimes (make) sure it was still there.
26.- Your hair needs (cut). You'd better (have) it done 22.- Jack suggested (let) one flat and (keep) the other for
tomorrow -unless you'd like me (have) a go at it for you. 27.- myself. But Tom advised me (sell) the whole house.
I tried (convince) him that I was perfectly capable of (manage) 23.- The child used (lean) on the gate (watch) the people (go)
on my own, but he insisted on (help) me. to work in the mornings and (come) home in the evenings. And
28.- Jack: I don't mind (travel) by bus, but I hate (stand) in he used to hear them (shout) greeting to each other and (talk)
queues. Tom: I don't care for (queue) either; and you wasted loudly.
so much time (wait) for buses. I think it's better (go) by tube 24.- He soon got (know) most of them and even managed
or taxi. (learn) the greetings. Then they began (greet) him too on their
29.- He took to (follow) me about and (criticize) my work till I way to work and sometimes would stop (talk) to him on their
threatened (hit) him. way home.
30.- I have (stay) here; I'm on duty. But you needn't (wait); 25.- He succeeded in (untie) himself, (climb) out of the window
31.- In Animal Farm the old pig urged the animals (rebel)6
and (crawl) along a narrow ledge to the window of the next language, as he isn't used to (speak) English.
room. 10.- Most educationalists agree that no teacher's duties
26.- Did you have any trouble (find) the house? - No, but I had should be limited solely to (teach).
a lot of difficulty (get) in. Nobody seemed (know) where the 11.- Unreliable delivery dates are one of the most important
key was. obstacles to (increase) our exports.
27.- Bill couldn't bear (see) anyone (sit) round idly. Whenever 12.- Since the introduction of new services, may businessmen
he found me (relax) or (read) he would (produce) a job which, have taken to (travel) by train for journeys between 100-200
he said, had (be) done at once. I wasted a morning (perform) miles.
his ridiculous tasks and spent the rest of the weekend (keep)
out of his way.
28.- After (spend) a week in the cottage, he decided that he 6) Verb + (noun or pronoun) + gerund
didn't really enjoy (live) in the country and began (think) of an
excuse for (sell) the cottage and (return) to London. I) Replace the words in italics by a gerund construction.
29.- It's no use (argue) with him. You might as well (argue) The object or possessive form of a pronoun or noun will
with a stone wall. He is incapable of (see) anyone else's point be required before the gerund in some cases, e.g.
of view. I didn't recall that he had said such a thing.
30.- I'm delighted (hear) that you can come on Saturday. We I didn't recall him (or his) saying (or having said) such
are all looking forward to (see) you. Remember (bring) your thing.
rubber boots. 1.- He didn't even acknowledge that he had received the
31.- He has been charged with (receive) and (sell) stolen invitation.
goods. He has admitted (receive) but denies (sell) them. The 2.- The witness reported that he had seen a dark saloon car
fact is that he hasn't had time (sell) them yet. parked outside the bank at the time of the robbery.
32.- He noticed the helicopter (hover) over the field. Then, to 3.- The accused admitted that he had received the stolen
his astonishment, he saw a rope ladder (be) thrown out and goods.
three men (climb) down it. He watched them (run) across the 4.- The headmaster suggested that I should try the
field and out through a gate. Later he saw a car with four men examination again the following year.
in it (come) out of the lane (lead) to the field. 5.- I don't recollect that I actually promised to help you.
33.- He admitted that it was possible that the car happened 6.- A group of MPs has advocated that the Government should
(be passing) and that the three men persuaded the driver (give) set up a special commission of inquiry.
them a lift; but he thought it much more likely that they had 7.- Do you anticipate that there will be any real problem in
arranged for the car (pick) them up and that the driver had getting support?
been waiting in the lane for the helicopter (drop) them. 8.- Surely he won't deny that he was there on that occasion?
34.- What about (have) a picnic in Piccadilly Circus? - What 9.- No one doubted that he was sincere in his beliefs.
an extraordinary place (have) a picnic! Fancy (sit) there with 10.- I can't imagine that he would ever agree to such a
the traffic (swirl) round you and the pigeons (take) bites of your proposition.
35.- Would you mind (write) your address on the back of the
cheque and (show) us some proof of your identity?
36.- Let's (swim) across.- I'm not really dressed for (swim).
What's wrong with (go) round by the bridge?
3) For + object + infinitive
a) e.g. It's too dark; I can't see anything = It's too dark for me
1.- It's too early; don't go yet.
2.- It was too difficult; he couldn't do it.
3.- I'm lending you this book; I want you to read it.
4.-The water wasn't warm enough; he didn't have a swim.
5.- It was not clear enough; they did not understand.
6.- The flat is too small; we can't live in it.
7.- It's too sour; I can't eat it.
8.- The garage is large enough; we can put our cars in it.
b) e.g. It's important that he should see it first. =
It's important for him to see it first.
1.- It's necessary that you should know about it.
2.- It's strange that he should refuse to see him.
3.- It's impossible that this should go on much longer.
4.- It was necessary that I should have seen you as agreed.
5.- It was a good thing that they agreed to sell it to us.
6.- It was important that they trusted her.
4) to + gerund or infinitive
Decide whether to is functioning as a preposition or as part of
an infinitive, and then complete the sentences with the gerund
or the infinitive of the verbs in brackets.
1.- The speaker said he would confine himself to (try) to
(answer) four questions.
2.- By selling council houses, we are able to devote more
money to (build) fresh properties.
3.- Hard work is the key to (pass) examinations.
4.- The idea of a laboratory permanently in space is moving
rapidly nearer to (become) a reality.
5.- Having suggested the scheme myself, I now feel
committed to (try) to (make) it work.
6.- I think that is what he said, but I can't swear to (have)
heard him correctly.
7.- He used to (dislike) London, but he now seems resigned
to (live) there.
8.- Jones came very close to (win) a gold medal for Britain in
9.- It might be better to (try) to (discuss) it in his own