воскресенье, 11 ноября 2012 г.

Module 4. Global Issues. Part 1.

Read the text and afte that make the chart. Please, mind that you need not only to write the problem, but also to write the nouns, verbs and adjectives we can use to describe the problem. Each group works with the given aspect.

Global problems of humanity.

Global problems of humanity
Globalization is the process of integration at a higher geographical level than in previous stages of development. The globalization process is natural, inevitable and to some extent expected. The driving force behind the globalization of economic activities, linking production and markets of different countries through trade in goods and services and movement of capital and information. Globalization is a question only the second half of 20 century. When the development of science and technology has brought human civilization next full advantage of new risks and nebezbečí that threatens extinction of mankind, but also all life on Earth. Global problems of humanity’s problems are not limited only to a single country or continent, but worldwide, and their solution is important for all humanity. Global challenges are many and interlinked. Generally it can be divided into several groups:
Risk of war
In the history of mankind, the war was a common means of policy, allowing armed violence to promote the interests of states, nations and social groups. The army and the weapons were a guarantee of security 
. In the 20 century. However, our modern civilization break in the military and arms production. Eg. some nuclear or other weapons of mass destruction capable of destroying modern civilization and humanity back to its origins or lead to destruction of wildlife. Science and technology enables the production of weapons that are difficult to control. It can lead to weapons of mass destruction, organized crime or terrorists. The current outbreak of tensions and conflicts are primarily in the so-called third world but also in the Balkans or the Caucasus. These are mainly countries where underdeveloped economy and infrastructure and the living habits of the population prevents democratic development. Can be taken on domestic usurpers, plotters and soldiers. Population promises a simple solution to all problems, and under the guise of religious or ethnic violence act in their favor. This process usually ends with a humanitarian disaster. The greatest conflicts are taking place in the new nations of Africa, Indonesia, Chechnya, or between India and Pakistan. Despite the support of various military and humanitarian missions, such as the UN, the situation is not improving in most places.
Population growth
Population growth is considered one of the priorities of global problems. In 1850 the population reached 1 billion for the first time. To achieve the second had only 75 years and in 2000 lived on the Earth of 6 billion people. If this enormous growth continues, by 2030 the population in 1912 to form in 2100 about 50 billion people. This rapid growth is due to decreased mortality, improved nutrition and health. care. The largest population increase recorded in the developing countries where industrial development has been recently. In addition to population growth, there is also the displacement of people into cities. After 2000 lived in cities, about half of all people. The influx of people into cities is again most pronounced in developing countries, where the city is skyrocketing, but associated with a labor shortage. opportunities, poverty, drugs and alcohol, crime, cultural uprooting and loss of identity. Many people live in slums, so-called slums without any infrastructure in unimaginable poverty. The current rate of population growth can not proceed without damaging the planetary ecosystem, and even more did not reduce the standard of living. The population explosion has resulted in even greater industrial growth, rapid exploitation of natural resources and increasing environmental pollution.
Securing natural resources and energy
With the growth of human population and the speed of the global economy is increasing consumption of water, food, fossil fuels, minerals and other raw materials. In most cases, their resources are limited, which leads to a deficiency. Serious as water and food shortages. Hunger is one of the worst global issues. Millions of people today during the scientific revolution are suffering and dying of hunger. One of the most affected area is the area south of the Sahara, known as the Sahel zone, where some countries are totally dependent on food aid from abroad. Dies of hunger every year about 20 million people that is about 50,000 a day. 
Most of the ground capable of cultivation, already used for food production. Fish stocks in the oceans are rapidly reduced or have been destroyed. In all of the available deposits of oil or gas has been extracted. The larger part of the country was transformed in the developed areas due to economic 
development. Agriculture, forestry, industry, housing, transport network seriously disrupt or destroy nature. Many less-developed countries face serious social and economic challenges posed by population growth and the need to finance infrastructure development and thus often lack the money for development. There are the pressures at the earliest possible use of natural resources. Fertile land is used for growing commercial crops for export such as coffee. In developed countries, in turn increases the pressure on resources particularly rapid growth in living standards and the excessive consumption of the population.
Environmental degradation
Since one can do with your thinking, techniques and technologies to find new ways to enjoy nature, became a permanent factor in the state of the environment. 
Originally influenced nature only locally, then regionally, but globally as well lately. Typical signs of human activity on Earth is a permanent loss of forests. Currently, it has affected large areas of Europe, Siberia, and especially tropical rain forests. Since 1900, disappeared about half of tropical forests are felled each year and about 16 million ha. Deforestation man gaining ground on agriculture for a limited period of time, because there has been a rapid erosion, land degradation and climate change. Nature also losing the enormous genetic potential and is thus the extinction of certain animal and plant species. The forests are disappearing as natural protection against the spread of steppe and desert, there is a decrease of groundwater and the lack of water and long droughts. The devastation of the natural ingredients sector has a different level. The smallest range of changes in the lithosphere. They are concentrated in small areas, such as the mining of raw materials but produce full-scale landscape changes. 
Hydrosphere pollution damage varies with surface and groundwater quantity 
and harmfulness of waste. The increasing levels of pollution is caused by industry and agriculture, such as the use of fertilizers and crop protection chemicals, etc. or a tanker accident of some marine pollution has reached dangerous levels, especially in major ports and coasts or in areas of oil production. 
Air pollution is especially dangerous because of the ease of transmission over long distances, emissions-ment. These are mainly dust, sulfur oxides, nitrogen, and some substances in small concentrations, but with high impact such as Freon. It works on the decomposition of ozone and the formation of ozone holes. Other ozone depletion can have devastating consequences for the Earth, this is a protection against harmful cosmic radiation. 
The main sources of air pollution are power plants, home heating systems, factories and combustion processes in automobile and aircraft. Air pollution has serious impacts on human health, contaminates the soil, kills trees …. . Some substances, mainly oxides of sulfur and nitrogen can dissolve in the clouds, giving rise to the so-called acid rain. These rains could cause even at great distances from the emission of causing pollution of groundwater and surface waters and springs. Another serious problem is the greenhouse effect and associated global warming. It is a phenomenon caused by high concentrations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, leading to greater retention of heat radiation and temperature rise 
on Earth. The consequences can be expected on the planet, may result in fluctuation of climate change in precipitation regime (local drought or floods), spreading deserts, to gain and change of tropical storms and melting glaciers, leading to rising global ocean levels and the risk of some coastal areas or entire islands. From human activities 
would probably suffer most from agriculture, which is very sensitive to climate change. Global warming is partly a natural process, but it is one of considerable interest and it could slow down and stop primarily by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. This is related to industrial activities such as using alternative energy sources instead of burning fossil fuels, but also a way of life such as car use. Many international agreements to limit emissions and alludes to the reluctance of some countries fear slowdown in its economic development are particularly developing countries, but should the United States of America, which produces up to 13% of all emissions.
Diseases and other modern phenomena
Man is threatened by a number of lifestyle diseases and dangerous phenomena. There are many diseases that are not even able to present medical science to heal. They are mainly different viral disease present, of which the best known and most dangerous of AIDS, which now occurs worldwide. Especially in Africa and Third World countries that lack the resources to education and medications for him thousands die. Growing number of diseases caused by the human way of life, such as cancer from smoking, etc. 
Artificial human environment brings risks of many previously unknown diseases, but also threatens the emergence of new diseases. Chemical poisons, radiation damage, not only physical health, but also in the human genetic code. An increasing number of children born with birth defects and hereditary diseases. People knowingly accept toxins in the form of drugs, alcohol, tobacco and drug abuse. Another problem is the overall urbanization of the West and the related physical degeneration and the rising number of suicides. It is paradoxical that a man as a biological organism at the highest level of development could harm the most myself.

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